Church of Black Cross of Teutonic Knights
The full name of the Order in German is Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus St. Mariens in Jerusalem or in Latin Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum (engl. “Order of the House of St. Mary of the Germans in Jerusalem”). Thus the term “Teutonic” echoes the German origins of the order (Theutonicorum) in its Latin name. It is commonly known in German as the Deutscher Orden (official short name, literally “German Order”), historically also as Deutscher Ritterorden (“German Order of Knights”), Deutschherrenorden, Deutschritterorden (“Order of the German Knights”), Marienritter (“Knights of Mary“), Die Herren im weißen Mantel (“The lords in white capes”), etc.
The Teutonic Knights have been known as Zakon Krzyżacki in Polish (“Order of the Cross”) and as Kryžiuočių Ordinas in Lithuanian, Vācu Ordenis in Latvian, Saksa Ordu or, simply, Ordu (“The Order”) in Estonian, as well as various names in other languages.
Formed in the year 1192 in Acre, in the Levant, the medieval Order played an important role in Outremer (the general name for the Crusader states), controlling the port tolls of Acre. After Christian forces were defeated in the Middle East, the Order moved to Transylvania in 1211 to help defend the South-Eastern borders of the Kingdom of Hungary against the Cumans. The Knights were expelled by force of arms by King Andrew II of Hungary in 1225, after attempting to place themselves under papal instead of the original Hungarian sovereignty and thus to become independent.
In 1230, following the Golden Bull of Rimini, Grand Master Hermann von Salza and Duke Konrad I of Masovia launched the Prussian Crusade, a joint invasion of Prussia intended to Christianize the Baltic Old Prussians. The Knights had quickly taken steps against their Polish hosts and with the Holy Roman Emperor‘s support, had changed the status of Chełmno Land (also Ziemia Chelminska or Kulmerland), where they were invited by the Polish prince, into their own property. Starting from there, the Order created the independent Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights, adding continuously the conquered Prussians’ territory, and subsequently conquered Livonia. Over time, the kings of Poland denounced the Order for expropriating their lands, specifically Chełmno Land and later the Polish lands of Pomerelia (also Pomorze Gdańskie or Pomerania), Kujawy, and Dobrzyń Land.
The Order theoretically lost its main purpose in Europe with the Christianization of Lithuania. However, it initiated numerous campaigns against its Christian neighbours, the Kingdom of Poland, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Novgorod Republic (after assimilating the Livonian Order). The Teutonic Knights had a strong economic base which enabled them to hire mercenaries from throughout Europe to augment their feudal levies, and they also became a naval power in the Baltic Sea. In 1410, a Polish-Lithuanian army decisively defeated the Order and broke its military power at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg). However, the capital of the Teutonic Knights was successfully defended in the following Siege of Marienburg and the Order was saved from collapse.
In 1515, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I made a marriage alliance with Sigismund I of Poland-Lithuania. Thereafter, the empire did not support the Order against Poland. In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg resigned and converted to Lutheranism, becoming Duke of Prussia as a vassal of Poland. Soon after, the Order lost Livonia and its holdings in the Protestant areas of Germany. The Order did keep its considerable holdings in Catholic areas of Germany until 1809, when Napoleon Bonaparte ordered its dissolution and the Order lost its last secular holdings.
However, the Order continued to exist as a charitable and ceremonial body. It was outlawed by Adolf Hitler in 1938, but re-established in 1945. Today it operates primarily with charitable aims in Central Europe.
The Knights wore white surcoats with a black cross. A cross pattée was sometimes used as their coat of arms; this image was later used for military decoration and insignia by the Kingdom of Prussia and Germany as the Iron Cross and Pour le Mérite. The motto of the Order was:[year needed][dubious ] “Helfen, Wehren, Heilen” (“Help, Defend, Heal”)
- 1198 Formation
- 1218 Siege of Damietta
- 1228–1229 The Sixth Crusade
- 1237 absorption of The Livonian Brothers of the Sword
- 1242 The Battle on the Ice
- 1242–1249 First Prussian uprising
- 1249 Treaty of Christburg with the pagan Prussians signed on February 9
- 1249 Battle of Krücken
- 1260 Battle of Durbe
- 1260–1274 Great Prussian uprising
- 1262 Siege of Königsberg
- 1263 Battle of Löbau
- 1264 Siege of Bartenstein
- 1270 Battle of Karuse
- 1271 Battle of Pagastin
- 1279 Battle of Aizkraukle
- 1291 Siege of Acre (1291)
- 1308–1309 Teutonic takeover of Danzig and Treaty of Soldin
- 1326–1332 First Polish–Teutonic War, for Kuyavia, with involvement of Lithuania and Hungary
- 1331 Battle of Płowce
- 1343 Treaty of Kalisz, exchange of Kuyavia for Kulm and other territories
- 1343–1345 St. George’s Night Uprising
- 1346 Purchase of Duchy of Estonia from Denmark
- 1348 Battle of Strėva
- 1370 Battle of Rudau
- 1409–1411 Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War, the Teutonic knights are defeated by Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło and Lithuanian Grand duke Vytautas the Great at the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) (1410)
- 1414 Hunger War
- 1422 Gollub War ending with the Treaty of Melno
- 1431–1435 Second Polish–Teutonic War
- 1454–1466 Thirteen Years’ War
- 1466 Second Peace of Thorn (1466)
- 1467–1479 War of the Priests
- 1519–1521 Third Polish–Teutonic War
- 1525 the Livonian Order buys itself de facto independent from the Teutonic Order
- 1525 Order loses State of the Teutonic Order due to the Prussian Homage, it becomes Ducal Prussia